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Andronikos III was the son of Michael IX Palaiologos and Rita of Armenia ( renamed Maria ).
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Andronikos and III
Andronikos III Palaiologos, Latinized as Andronicus III Palaeologus (; 25 March 1297 – 15 June 1341 ) was Byzantine emperor from 1328 to 1341, after being rival emperor since 1321.
The elder Andronikos disowned his grandson, whereupon Andronikos III fled the capital and rallied his supporters around him in Thrace.
Effective administrative authority during the reign of Andronikos III was wielded by his megas domestikos John Kantakouzenos, while the Emperor enjoyed himself hunting or waging war.
The subsequent years witnessed the gradual extinction of Byzantine rule in Asia Minor, as Orhan of the Ottoman Turks, who had already defeated Andronikos III at Pelekanos in 1329, took Nicaea in 1331 and Nicomedia in 1337.
Earlier Andronikos III had effected the recovery of the islands of Lesbos and Chios from Martino Zaccaria in 1329 ( although the island remained under Benedetto III Zaccaria until 1330 ) and of Phocaea in 1334 from the last Genoese governor Domenico Cattaneo.
Despite these troubles Andronikos III secured the extension of Byzantine control over Thessaly in 1333 and Epirus in 1337, by taking advantage of succession crises in these principalities.
Andronikos III reorganized the Byzantine navy ( consisted of 10 ships by 1332 ) and reformed the judicial system by forming a panel of four universal judges whom he designated " Universal Justices of the Romans ".
The Muslim traveller Ibn Battuta, who visited Constantinople towards the end of 1332, mentions in his memoirs having met Andronikos III.
In the summer of 1329, Andronikos III launched a relief attempt which culminated in a defeat at the Battle of Pelekanon on 10 June and in 1331, the city fell.
Not wishing to see Nicomedia or the other few remaining forts in Asia Minor suffer the same fate, Andronikos III sought to pay off the Ottomans with tribute — the Ottomans did not stop at this and seized Nicomedia as well in 1337.
Andronikos III was first married, in 1318, with Irene of Brunswick, daughter of Henry I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg ; she died in 1324.
Andronikos and was
Their party was defeated ( 2 May 1182 ), but Andronikos Komnenos, a first cousin of Emperor Manuel, took advantage of these disorders to aim at the crown, entered Constantinople, where he was received with almost divine honours, and overthrew the government.
Andronikos was now formally proclaimed as co-emperor before the crowd on the terrace of the Church of Christ of the Chalkè, and not long afterwards, on the pretext that divided rule was injurious to the Empire, he caused Alexios II to be strangled with a bow-string ( October 1183 ).
His younger brother Isaac was threatened with execution under orders of their first-cousin once-removed Andronikos I Komnenos on September 11, 1185.
* Eirene Angelina, who married ( 1 ) Andronikos Kontostephanos, and ( 2 ) Alexios Palaiologos, by whom she was the grandmother of Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos.
Andronikos III's attempt to make up for this setback by annexing Bulgarian Thrace failed in 1332, when he was defeated by the new Bulgarian Emperor Ivan Alexander at Rousokastron.
Yet none of this was due to a lack of leadership on Andronikos ' part and his reign could be said to end before the Byzantine Empire's position became untenable due to the ensuing civil war which consumed the empire's remaining resources on Andronikos's death.
Andronikos II Palaiologos () ( 25 March 1259 – 13 February 1332 ), Latinized as Andronicus II Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 1282 to 1328.
Sole emperor from 1282, Andronikos II immediately repudiated his father's unpopular Church union with the Papacy ( which he had been forced to support while his father was still alive ), but was unable to resolve the related schism within the Orthodox clergy until 1310.
Andronikos II was also plagued by economic difficulties and during his reign the value of the Byzantine hyperpyron depreciated precipitously while the state treasury accumulated less than one seventh the revenue ( in nominal coins ) that it had done previously.
In spite of the resolution of problems in Europe, Andronikos II was faced with the collapse of the Byzantine frontier in Asia Minor, despite the successful, but short, governorships of Alexios Philanthropenos and John Tarchaneiotes.
By the end of Andronikos II's reign, much of Bithynia was in the hands of the Ottoman Turks of Osman I and his son and heir Orhan.
Andronikos I Komnenos ( or Andronicus I Comnenus, ; c. 1118 – September 12, 1185 ) was Byzantine Emperor from 1183 to 1185 ).
Andronikos and son
Andronikos II also attempted to marry off his son and co-emperor Michael IX Palaiologos to the Latin Empress Catherine I of Courtenay, thus seeking to eliminate Western agitation for a restoration of the Latin Empire.
The dissolute behavior of Michael IX's son Andronikos III Palaiologos led to a rift in the family, and after Michael IX's death in 1320, Andronikos II disowned his grandson, prompting a civil war that raged, with interruptions, until 1328.
In 1376 – 1379 and again in 1390 they were supplanted by Andronikos IV and then his son John VII, but Manuel personally defeated his nephew with help from the Republic of Venice in 1390.
Michael VIII Palaiologos was the son of the megas domestikos Andronikos Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos by Theodora Angelina, the granddaughter of Emperor Alexios III Angelos and Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina.
Michael VIII entered the city on 15 August and had himself crowned together with his infant son Andronikos II Palaiologos.
John V was the son of Emperor Andronikos III and his wife Anna, the daughter of Count Amadeus V of Savoy by his second wife Maria of Brabant.
In 1371, he recognized the suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan Murad I. Murad later assisted him against his son Andronikos when the latter deposed him in 1376.
By his wife Irene Asanina, a daughter of Andronikos Asan ( son of Emperor Ivan Asen III of Bulgaria by Eirene Palaiologina, herself daughter of Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos ), John VI Kantakouzenos had several children, including:
Constantine Doukas was the son of Andronikos Doukas, a Paphlagonian nobleman who may have served as governor of the theme of Moesia.
Andronikos IV Palaiologos was the eldest son of Emperor John V Palaiologos by his wife Helena Kantakouzene.
Andronikos IV had allied with Murad's son Savcı Bey, who was rebelling against his own father, but both rebellions failed.
Murad I blinded his son and demanded that John V have Andronikos IV blinded as well, but John V blinded Andronikos in only one eye.