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Page "Algebraic function" ¶ 11
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Formally and algebraic
* Formally real field, an algebraic field that has the so-called " real " property
Formally, Liouville numbers and elementary numbers contain the algebraic numbers, and they include some but not all transcendental numbers.
Formally, this is described in algebraic notation like this: ( 19 + 1 ) + ( 15 − 1 ) = x, but even a young student might use this technique without calling it algebra.

Formally and function
Formally, the derivative of the function f at a is the limit
Formally, there is a clear distinction: " DFT " refers to a mathematical transformation or function, regardless of how it is computed, whereas " FFT " refers to a specific family of algorithms for computing DFTs.
Formally, if M is a set, the identity function f on M is defined to be that function with domain and codomain M which satisfies
Formally a random variable is considered to be a function on the possible outcomes.
Formally, the discrete cosine transform is a linear, invertible function ( where denotes the set of real numbers ), or equivalently an invertible N × N square matrix.
Formally, we are given a set of hypotheses and a set of manifestations ; they are related by the domain knowledge, represented by a function that takes as an argument a set of hypotheses and gives as a result the corresponding set of manifestations.
Formally, a function ƒ is real analytic on an open set D in the real line if for any x < sub > 0 </ sub > in D one can write
Formally, an elliptic function is a function meromorphic on for which there exist two non-zero complex numbers and with ( in other words, not parallel ), such that and for all.
Formally, if is an open subset of the complex plane, a point of, and is a holomorphic function, then is called a removable singularity for if there exists a holomorphic function which coincides with on.
Formally, the problem of supervised pattern recognition can be stated as follows: Given an unknown function ( the ground truth ) that maps input instances to output labels, along with training data assumed to represent accurate examples of the mapping, produce a function that approximates as closely as possible the correct mapping.
Formally, a statistic s is a measurable function of X ; thus, a statistic s is evaluated on a random variable X, taking the value s ( X ), which is itself a random variable.
Formally, the discrete sine transform is a linear, invertible function F: R < sup > N </ sup > < tt >-></ tt > R < sup > N </ sup > ( where R denotes the set of real numbers ), or equivalently an N × N square matrix.
Formally, the discrete Hartley transform is a linear, invertible function H: R < sup > n </ sup > < tt >-></ tt > R < sup > n </ sup > ( where R denotes the set of real numbers ).
Formally, the integral is the inner product of the luminosity function with the light spectrum.
Formally, a cardinal κ is defined to be weakly compact if it is uncountable and for every function f: < sup > 2 </ sup >
Formally, an analytic function ƒ ( z ) of the real or complex variables z < sub > 1 </ sub >,…, z < sub > n </ sub > is transcendental if z < sub > 1 </ sub >, …, z < sub > n </ sub >, ƒ ( z ) are algebraically independent, i. e., if ƒ is transcendental over the field C ( z < sub > 1 </ sub >, …, z < sub > n </ sub >).
Formally, the Cantor function c: → is defined as follows:
Formally, this means that we want a function to be monotonic.
Formally, this means that, for some function f, the image f ( D ) of a directed set D ( i. e. the set of the images of each element of D ) is again directed and has as a least upper bound the image of the least upper bound of D. One could also say that f preserves directed suprema.
Formally, let be a stochastic process and let represent the cumulative distribution function of the joint distribution of at times.
Formally, an ultrametric space is a set of points with an associated distance function ( also called a metric )

Formally and n
Formally, if d is the dimension of the parameter, and n is the number of samples, if as and as, then the model is semi-parametric.
Formally, the singular value decomposition of an m × n real or complex matrix M is a factorization of the form
Formally, Aff ( V ) is naturally isomorphic to a subgroup of, with V embedded as the affine plane, namely the stabilizer of this affine plane ; the above matrix formulation is the ( transpose of ) the realization of this, with the ( n × n and 1 × 1 ) blocks corresponding to the direct sum decomposition.
Formally, let f: < sup > n </ sup > → be the cost function which must be minimized.
Formally, given complex-valued functions f and g of a natural number variable n, one writes
Formally, a complex projective space is the space of complex lines through the origin of an ( n + 1 )- dimensional complex vector space.
Formally, given a finite set X, a collection C of subsets of X, all of size n, has Property B if we can partition X into two disjoint subsets Y and Z such that every set in C meets both Y and Z.
Formally, a composite number n = d · 2 < sup > s </ sup > + 1 with d being odd is called a strong pseudoprime to a relatively prime base a when one of the following conditions hold:
Formally, the use of a reduction is the function that sends each natural number n to the largest natural number m whose membership in the set B was queried by the reduction while determining the membership of n in A.
Formally, P is a symmetric polynomial, if for any permutation σ of the subscripts 1, 2, ..., n one has P ( X < sub > σ ( 1 )</ sub >, X < sub > σ ( 2 )</ sub >, …, X < sub > σ ( n )</ sub >) = P ( X < sub > 1 </ sub >, X < sub > 2 </ sub >, …, X < sub > n </ sub >).
Formally, consider an n × n matrix A =( a < sub > i, j </ sub >).
Formally, a natural number n is called superabundant precisely when, for any m < n,

Formally and variables
Formally, collective noun forms such as “ a group of people ” are represented by second-order variables, or by first-order variables standing for sets ( which are well-defined objects in mathematics and logic ).
Formally it is precisely in allowing quantification over class variables α, β, etc., that we assume a range of values for these variables to refer to.
Formally, two variables are inversely proportional ( or varying inversely, or in inverse variation, or in inverse proportion or in reciprocal proportion ) if one of the variables is directly proportional with the multiplicative inverse ( reciprocal ) of the other, or equivalently if their product is a constant.
Formally, they are partial derivatives of the option price with respect to the independent variables ( technically, one Greek, gamma, is a partial derivative of another Greek, called delta ).
Formally, dependence refers to any situation in which random variables do not satisfy a mathematical condition of probabilistic independence.
Formally, a constraint satisfaction problem is defined as a triple, where is a set of variables, is a domain of values, and is a set of constraints.
Formally, the outcomes Y < sub > i </ sub > are described as being Bernoulli-distributed data, where each outcome is determined by an unobserved probability p < sub > i </ sub > that is specific to the outcome at hand, but related to the explanatory variables.
Formally, the mutual information of two discrete random variables X and Y can be defined as:
Formally, the algorithm's performance will be a random variable determined by the random bits ; thus either the running time, or the output ( or both ) are random variables.
Formally, let p ( x, y ) be a complex polynomial in the complex variables x and y.
Formally, propositional models can be represented by sets of propositional variables ; namely, each model is represented by the set of propositional variables it assigns to true.
Formally, the extension of circumscription that incorporate varying and fixed variables is as follows, where is the set of variables to minimize, the fixed variables, and the varying variables are those not in:

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