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Formally and random
Formally, a Markov chain is a random process with the Markov property.
Formally, dependence refers to any situation in which random variables do not satisfy a mathematical condition of probabilistic independence.
Formally, a statistic s is a measurable function of X ; thus, a statistic s is evaluated on a random variable X, taking the value s ( X ), which is itself a random variable.
Formally, the mutual information of two discrete random variables X and Y can be defined as:
Formally, we begin by considering some family of distributions for a random variable X, that is indexed by some θ.
Formally, the algorithm's performance will be a random variable determined by the random bits ; thus either the running time, or the output ( or both ) are random variables.

Formally and variable
Formally, let P be an expression in which the variable x is free.
Formally, however, the phrase that introduces the dummy variable is placed in front.
Formally, given complex-valued functions f and g of a natural number variable n, one writes
Formally, a cumulativity predicate CUM can be defined as follows, where capital X is a variable over sets, U is the universe of discourse, p is a mereological part structure on U, and is the mereological sum operation.
Formally, a quantization predicate QUA can be defined as follows, where is the universe of discourse, and is a variable over sets, and is a mereological part structure on with < math > < _p </ math > the mereological part-of relation.
Formally however they define it as any variable that does not directly affect the fundamentals of the economy.

Formally and is
Formally organized vocational programs supported by federal funds allow high school students to gain experience in a field of work which is likely to lead to a full-time job on graduation.
Formally, a binary operation on a set S is called associative if it satisfies the associative law:
Formally, their designation is the letter Ž and the number.
Formally, a topological space X is called compact if each of its open covers has a finite subcover.
Formally, the set of all context-free languages is identical to the set of languages accepted by pushdown automata ( PDA ).
Formally, the derivative of the function f at a is the limit
More rigorously, the divergence of a vector field F at a point p is defined as the limit of the net flow of F across the smooth boundary of a three dimensional region V divided by the volume of V as V shrinks to p. Formally,
Formally, the base is known as Naval Support Facility Diego Garcia ( the US activity ) or Permanent Joint Operating Base ( PJOB ) Diego Garcia ( the UK's term ).
Formally, there is a clear distinction: " DFT " refers to a mathematical transformation or function, regardless of how it is computed, whereas " FFT " refers to a specific family of algorithms for computing DFTs.
Formally, oxidation state is the hypothetical charge that an atom would have if all bonds to atoms of different elements were 100 % ionic.
Formally, a bifunctor is a functor whose domain is a product category.
Formally, a set S is called finite if there exists a bijection
Formally, the system is said to have memory.
Formally, an inner product space is a vector space V over the field together with an inner product, i. e., with a map
Formally, if M is a set, the identity function f on M is defined to be that function with domain and codomain M which satisfies
* Formally, when working over the reals, as here, this is accomplished by considering the limit as ε → 0 ; but the " infinitesimal " language generalizes directly to Lie groups over general rings.
Formally, a profinite group is a Hausdorff, compact, and totally disconnected topological group: that is, a topological group that is also a Stone space.
Formally, this sharing of dynamics is referred to as universality, and systems with precisely the same critical exponents are said to belong to the same universality class.
Formally, a frame is defined to be a lattice L in which finite meets distribute over arbitrary joins, i. e. every ( even infinite ) subset
Formally, Φ = kx − ωt is the phase.

Formally and considered
Formally, they have always been considered Orthodox Christians, but most of them followed shamanism and animism as a part of their culture.

Formally and be
However, shortly after this positive result, Kurt Gödel published On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems ( 1931 ), showing that in any sufficiently strong axiomatic system there are true statements which cannot be proved in the system.
Formally the algorithm can be described as:
Formally, let S and T be finite sets and let F =
Formally the " head of state " can also personally be the " head of government " ( ex officio or by ad hoc cumulation such as an absolute monarch nominating himself ) but otherwise has formal precedence over the Head of Government and other ministers, whether he is their actual political superior ( absolute monarch, executive president ) or rather theoretical or ceremonial in character.
Formally, in the finite-dimensional case, if the linear map is represented as a multiplication by a matrix A and the translation as the addition of a vector, an affine map acting on a vector can be represented as
Formally, the theorem can be stated as follows:
Formally, the convex hull may be defined as the intersection of all convex sets containing X or as the set of all convex combinations of points in X.
Formally, a decision problem is P-complete ( complete for the complexity class P ) if it is in P and that every problem in P can be reduced to it by using an appropriate reduction.
Formally, a detailed balanced process is the one on which the probability to be in the state x and transit to x ' must be the same as to be in the state x ' and transit to x.
If R is a ring, let R denote the ring of polynomials in the indeterminate X over R. Hilbert proved that if R is " not too large ", in the sense that if R is Noetherian, the same must be true for R. Formally,
Formally, a unique factorization domain is defined to be an integral domain R in which every non-zero and non-unit x of R can be written as a product ( including an empty product ) of irreducible elements p < sub > i </ sub > of R and a unit u:
Formally, powers with positive integer exponents may be defined by the initial condition
Formally, the problem of supervised pattern recognition can be stated as follows: Given an unknown function ( the ground truth ) that maps input instances to output labels, along with training data assumed to represent accurate examples of the mapping, produce a function that approximates as closely as possible the correct mapping.
Formally the self-inductance of a wire loop would be given by the above equation with i
Formally, a government would lay out its reasons for going to war, as well as its intentions in prosecuting it and the steps that might be taken to avert it.
Formally, if is any non-zero polynomial, it must be writable as.
Formally, a Menger sponge can be defined as follows:
Formally, the case where only a subset of parameters is defined is still a composite hypothesis ; nonetheless, the term point hypothesis is often applied in such cases, particularly where the hypothesis test can be structured in such a way that the distribution of the test statistic ( the distribution under the null hypothesis ) does not depend on the parameters whose values have not been specified under the point null hypothesis.

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