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Babylonian astronomy served as the basis for much of Greek, classical Indian, Sassanian, Byzantine, Syrian, medieval Islamic, Central Asian, and Western European astronomy.
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Babylonian and astronomy
In Old Babylonian astronomy, Ea was the ruler of the southernmost quarter of the Sun's path, the " Way of Ea ", corresponding to the period of 45 days on either side of winter solstice.
In the earliest Indian astronomy texts, the year was believed to be 360 days long, similar to that of Babylonian astrology, but the rest of the early astrological system bears little resemblance.
Ptolemy's catalogue is informed by Eudoxus of Cnidus, a Greek astronomer of the 4th century BC who introduced earlier Babylonian astronomy to the Hellenistic culture.
The oldest catalogues of stars and constellations are from Old Babylonian astronomy, beginning in the Middle Bronze Age.
The classical Zodiac is a product of a revision of the Old Babylonian system in later Neo-Babylonian astronomy 6th century BC.
Greek astronomy essentially adopted the older Babylonian system in the Hellenistic era, first introduced to Greece by Eudoxus of Cnidus in the 4th century BC.
The Babylonian development of methods for predicting the motions of the planets is considered to be a major episode in the history of astronomy.
We do not know what these applications may have been, or whether there could have been any ; Babylonian astronomy, for example, truly flowered only later.
Astronomical models of the universe were proposed soon after astronomy began with the Babylonian astronomers, who viewed the universe as a flat disk floating in the ocean, and this forms the premise for early Greek maps like those of Anaximander and Hecataeus of Miletus.
In Babylonian astronomy, Vega may have been one of the stars named Dilgan, " the Messenger of Light ".
It is known to have been in use by the Roman era, based on concepts inherited by Hellenistic astronomy from Babylonian astronomy of the Chaldean period ( mid-1st millennium BC ), which, in turn, derived from an earlier system of lists of stars along the ecliptic.
The division of the ecliptic into the zodiacal signs originates in Babylonian (" Chaldean ") astronomy during the first half of the 1st millennium BC, likely during Median /" Neo-Babylonian " times ( 7th century BC ),
The Babylonian star catalogs entered Greek astronomy in the 4th century BC, via Eudoxus of Cnidus and others.
Among the sciences, astronomy and astrology still occupied a conspicuous place in Babylonian society.
Babylonian astronomy was the basis for much of what was done in Greek and Hellenistic astronomy, in classical Indian astronomy, in Sassanian, Byzantine and Syrian astronomy, in medieval Islamic astronomy, and in Central Asian and Western European astronomy.
Babylonian and served
Frank Gaebelein observes that " Greek mercenaries and slaves served in the Babylonian and Assyrian periods, some of whom were undoubtedly versed in Greek music and musical instruments.
It subsequently served as an administrative center in the region under Babylonian, Hellenistic and Persian rule.
The Uruk List of Sages and Scholars names Šaggil-kīnam-ubbib as the ummânu, or sage, who served under him and the later king Adad-apla-iddina when he would author the Babylonian Theodicy, and several literary texts are thought to originate from his age, written in both Sumerian and Akkadian.
Bel-ibni was a Babylonian nobleman who served as King of Babylon for several years as the nominee of the Assyrian king Sennacherib.
Marduk-zakir-shumi II was a Babylonian nobleman who served briefly as King of Babylon for a few months in 703 BC, following a revolt against the rule of the Assyrian king Sennacherib.
Babylonian and basis
Rosh Hashanah () is the name of a text of Jewish law originating in the Mishnah which formed the basis of tractates in both the Babylonian Talmud and the Jerusalem Talmud of the same name.
However, the Babylonian Chronicles support the enumeration of Zedekiah's reign on a non-accession basis.
The Babylonian estimate for the synodic month was adopted for the greater part of two millennia by Hipparchus, Ptolemy and medieval writers ( and it is still in use as part of the basis for the calculated Hebrew ( Jewish ) calendar ).
Babylonian and for
In a Hittite text is mentioned that the king invited a Babylonian priestess for a certain " purification ".
It is the belief of Old Babylonian scholars such as Carruccio that Old Babylonians " may have used the abacus for the operations of addition and subtraction ; however, this primitive device proved difficult to use for more complex calculations ".
Other examples of his readiness for both warlike and unwarlike subjects are lyrics celebrating his brother's heroic exploits as a Babylonian mercenary and lyrics sung in a rare meter ( Sapphic Ionic in minore ) in the voice of a distressed girl, " Wretched me, who share in all ills!
* Monuments and records of other contemporary civilizations ; for example, representations of alien peoples in Egyptian frescoes ; imitation of Aegean fabrics and style in non-Aegean lands ; allusions to Mediterranean peoples in Egyptian, Semitic or Babylonian records.
Of special historical interest is the observation of Abbahu in regard to the benediction " Baruk Shem Kebod Malkuto " ( Blessed be the Name of His glorious Kingdom ) after the " Shema ' Yisrael ," that in Palestine, where the Christians look for points of controversy, the words should be recited aloud ( lest the Jews be accused of tampering with the unity of God proclaimed in the Shema '), whereas in the Babylonian city of Nehardea, where there are no Christians, the words are recited with a low voice ( Pesahim 56a ).
Early number systems that included positional notation were not decimal, including the sexagesimal ( base 60 ) system for Babylonian numerals and the vigesimal ( base 20 ) system that defined Maya numerals
# The remainder of 2 Chronicles ( chapters 10 – 36 ) is a chronicle of the kings of Judah to the time of the Babylonian exile, concluding with the call by Cyrus the Great for the exiles to return to their land.
The fragments describe a Babylonian king ( spelled N-b-n-y ) who is afflicted by God with an " evil disease " for a period of seven years ; he is cured and his sins forgiven after the intervention of a Jewish exile who is described as a " diviner "; he issues a written proclamation in praise of the Most High God, and speaks in the first person.
The answers were recorded in the works of the prophets Ezekiel, Jeremiah and Second Isaiah, and in the Deuteronomistic history, the collection of historical works from Joshua to Kings: God had not abandoned Israel ; Israel had abandoned God, and the Babylonian exile was God's punishment for Israel's lack of faith.
Habakkuk addresses his concerns over the fact that God will use the evil Babylonian empire to execute judgment on Judah for their sins.
The early history of the synagogue is obscure, but it seems to be an institution developed for public Jewish worship during the Babylonian captivity when the Jews ( and Jewish Proselytes ) did not have access to a Temple ( the First Temple having been destroyed c. 586 BC ) for ritual sacrifice.
The language used by the Chaldeans was the Babylonian dialect of Akkadian, the same Semitic language, save for slight peculiarities in sound and in characters, as Assyrian Akkadian.
Egyptian and Babylonian armies fought each other for control of the near east throughout much of Nebuchadnezzar's reign, and this encouraged king Zedekiah of Israel to revolt.
According to the Babylonian Talmud, the difference between a concubine and a full wife was that the latter received a marriage contract ( Hebrew: ketubah ) and her marriage ( nissu ' in ) was preceded by a formal betrothal ( erusin ), neither being the case for a concubine.
However, it seems that many of the methods for solving linear and quadratic equations used by Diophantus go back to Babylonian mathematics.
Rava states in the Babylonian Talmud that although Ezekiel describes the appearance of the throne of God ( Merkabah ), this is not because he had seen more than the prophet Isaiah, but rather because the latter was more accustomed to such visions ; for the relation of the two prophets is that of a courtier to a peasant, the latter of whom would always describe a royal court more floridly than the former, to whom such things would be familiar.
Additionally, a set of cuneiform tablets knows as the " musical texts " provide precise tuning instructions for seven scale of a stringed instrument ( assumed to be a Babylonian lyre ).
This text recounts a prophetic dream by Nebuchadnezzar, in which the previous empires had been Babylonian, Persian, Grecian and Roman ; the last empire, they concluded, would be established by the returning Jesus as King of kings and Lord of Lords to reign with his saints on earth for a thousand years.
The Babylonians are also known for the Babylonian mile, which was a measure of distance equal to about seven miles today.
Originally the Babylonian calendar was used by Jews for all daily purposes, but following the conquest of Jerusalem by Pompey in 63 BCE ( see also Iudaea province ), Jews began additionally following the imperial civil calendar, which was decreed in 45 BCE, for civic matters such as the payment of taxes and dealings with government officials.
The Syrian calendar used in the Levant region shares many of the names for months as the Hebrew calendar, such as Nisan, Iyyar, Tammuz, Ab, Elul, Tishri, and Adar, indicating a common Babylonian origin.
The Babylonian conquest entailed not just the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple, but the liquidation of the entire infrastructure which had sustained Judah for centuries.