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Page "Chemical biology" ¶ 78
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These and assays
These tests include: detecting complement fixation, indirect hemagglutination, indirect fluorescence assays, radioimmunoassays, and ELISA.
These findings rely on inhibition assays and the study of the kinetics of cleavage of the aforementioned substrate, exploiting the fact that the enzyme-substrate intermediate p-nitrophenolate has a yellow colour, enabling us to measure its concentration by measuring light absorbance at 410 nm.
These early techniques have been supplanted by PCR-based assays.
These assays are very sensitive and can detect as few as 10 virus particles.
These kind of industrial scale assays are often done in well equipped laboratories and use high level of automation in organizing the procedure, right from ordering of an assay, to pre-analytic sample processing ( sample collection, necessary manipulations e. g. spinning for separation or other processes, aliquoting if necessary, storage, retrieval, pipetting / aspiration etc.
These predictive in vitro assays reveal effects the administered compounds have on the bone marrow progenitor cells that produce the various mature cells in the blood and can be used to test the effects of single drugs or the effects of drugs administered in combination with others.
These assays measure cellular metabolic activity via NAD ( P ) H-dependent cellular oxidoreductase enzymes and may, under defined conditions, reflect the number of viable cells ( cell proliferation ).
These ideas were tested using sensitive and specific assays based on a combination of HPLC and mass spectrometry, but these peptides cannot be detected in autistic children's urine.
These antibodies are typically detected with chemiluminescent, fluorescent or colorimetric assays.
These assays make use of a sugar linked to a dye which, when acted on by the enzyme beta-galactosidase, produces a characteristic color.
These assays are in general much more sensitive than spectrophotometric assays, but can suffer from interference caused by impurities and the instability of many fluorescent compounds when exposed to light.
These assays are very general, since many reactions involve some change in heat and with use of a microcalorimeter, not much enzyme or substrate is required.
These assays can be used to measure reactions that are impossible to assay in any other way.
These properties can be illustrated with relative ease in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, where the progeny of a single cell is characterized.

These and include
These sages include poet Carl Sandburg, statesman Jawaharlal Nehru and sculptor Jacques Lipchitz, in Volume One, and playwright Sean O'Casey, David Ben-Gurion, philosopher Bertrand Russell and the late Frank Lloyd Wright in the second set.
These services include procurement and technical assistance and notice of surplus sales and invitations to bid on Government contracts for products and services within the registrants' field of operations.
These municipalities include: Barrington, Lincoln, Middletown, Newport, North Kingstown, and South Kingstown.
These cities and towns include Bristol, Glocester, Pawtucket, Cumberland, Central Falls, and Woonsocket.
These student-directed organizations include eight to ten members each ; ;
These include: leaves of absences, illnesses, and layoffs.
These include encouragement of, and assistance to, the engineer in preparation and publication of technical papers.
These include low-temperature ethanol ( Cohn ) fractionation, electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation and column chromatography on ion exchange celluloses.
These area reports will be followed, according to present plans, by a summary report, which will include a detailed statement on methods.
These include:
These types include the endosymbiotic events of cyanobacteria, red algae and green algae, leading to the hypothesis of the supergroups Archaeplastida, Chromalveolata and Cabozoa respectively.
These include graphical methods based on limiting
These include hypothesis testing, the partitioning of sums of
These grounds typically could include errors of law, fact, procedure or due process.
These lampoons include appealing to the authority of " a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London " and " the famous Psalmanazar, a native of the island Formosa " ( who had already confessed to not being from Formosa in 1706 ).
* Central Anatolian steppe: These dry grasslands cover the drier valleys and surround the saline lakes of central Anatolia, and include halophytic ( salt tolerant ) plant communities.
These include:
These outcomes include balance tasks, gait, and individual activities of daily living.
These tests include, but are not limited to:
These include: Albania, Afghanistan Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chad, Chile, the People's Republic of China, Côte d ' Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, DR Congo, Egypt, East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Holy See ( Vatican City ), Honduras, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Libya, Malta, Mauritania, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Norway, Netherlands, Nigeria, Oman, Order of Malta, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Uruguay, and Vietnam.
These include all quadratic surds, all rational numbers, and all numbers that can be formed from these using the basic arithmetic operations and the extraction of square roots.
These include four national forests and one national preserve within state borders that provide over 25 % of the state's public recreation land.
These include Metals and Materials ; the Secrets of Chemistry ; the Origin of Metals ; the Origins of Compounds, and a Concordance which is a collection of Observations on the philosopher's stone ; and other alchemy-chemistry topics, collected under the name of Theatrum Chemicum.
These include: On the Soul, Problems and Solutions, Ethical Problems, On Fate, and On Mixture and Growth.
These include, for example, the beta-lactam antibacterials, which include the penicillins ( produced by fungi in the genus Penicillium ), the cephalosporins, and the carbapenems.

These and top
These assumptions lead to an organization with one man at the top, six directly under him, six under each of these, and so on until there are six levels of personnel.
These consist of visits, without previous announcement, on top officials of manufacturing concerns located in highly industrialized areas.
These pits were also used to steam foods by adding heated rocks or embers and then seaweed or corn husks ( or other coverings ) placed on top to steam fish and shellfish as well as vegetables ; potatoes would be added while still in-skin and corn while in-husk, this would later be referred to as a clambake by the colonists.
These are the earliest anemometers and are simply a flat plate suspended from the top so that the wind deflects the plate.
These stunts usually include a flyer ( the person on top ), along with one or two bases ( the people on the bottom ) and, one or two spotters in the front and back on the bottom.
These stones were initially sold under the names " Emerita " and " Symeralds ", and they were grown as a thin layer of emerald on top of natural colorless beryl stones.
These advances led to the development of a layered model of the Earth, with a crust and lithosphere on top, the mantle below ( separated within itself by seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 kilometers ), and the outer core and inner core below that.
* Reversals or Sweeps: These occur when a grappler who was underneath his or her opponent on the ground is able to maneuver so that he or she gains a top position over his opponent.
These invasions would have constituted movements of a relatively small number of people who established themselves as a warrior elite at the top of pre-existing native systems, rather than any kind of total wipeout.
These consist of a single large comb with blow only reed-plates on the top and bottom.
These blocks are then arranged horizontally from left to right or vertically from top to bottom.
These were all horse drawn or relied on gravity, with a stationary steam engine to haul the wagons back to the top of the incline.
These images show 16mm Eastman Kodak keykode ( top ) and Fujifilm MR-code ( bottom ) The Fuji example was scanned from a positive print, but it shows the codes from the negative.
These helped establish his reputation as among the top particle physicists.
These arbitrary explanatory phrases become precise new operators, created on the fly by the programmer, forming a meta-language on top of the underlying programming language.
However, Ludo played in the Indian Subcontinent has a resting place in each quadrant, normally the fourth square from the top in the right most column. These spaces are usually marked with a star.
These are available as cross-platform free / open source or proprietary programming interfaces written on top of OpenGL and systems libraries to enable the creation of real-time visual simulation applications.
These additions were removed when the stone was cleaned in 1999, revealing the original dark grey tint of the rock, the sparkle of its crystalline structure, and a pink vein running across the top left corner.
These parallels, and a hieroglyphic sign for " stela " on the stone itself ( Gardiner's Sign O26 ) < div style =" display: inline ;">< hiero > O26 </ hiero ></ div > suggest that it originally had a rounded top.
These animals have been observed eating grass clippings from homes adjacent to water ways, but in this rare occurrence, only the top portion of the sirenian is lifted out of the water.
These shoes, first sold in 1917, are double-layer canvas shoes with rubber soles and toe caps, and a high heel ( known as a " high top ") for added support.
These ranks are A, AA, and AAA ; AAA corporations are top tier.
These acoustic qualities quickly minimize and reverse, once a layer of freezing rain falls on top of snow cover.
These tracks have come to be known as " restrictor plate tracks ", a name that is derived from the " restrictor plate ," device that was designed to limit top speeds to approximately on such tracks.
These are consistently found on top of or among the best rated Westerns in general.

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