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Formally and if
Formally, a binary operation on a set S is called associative if it satisfies the associative law:
Formally, a topological space X is called compact if each of its open covers has a finite subcover.
Formally, oxidation state is the hypothetical charge that an atom would have if all bonds to atoms of different elements were 100 % ionic.
Formally, a set S is called finite if there exists a bijection
Formally, if M is a set, the identity function f on M is defined to be that function with domain and codomain M which satisfies
Formally we mean that is an ideal if it satisfies the following conditions:
Formally, if d is the dimension of the parameter, and n is the number of samples, if as and as, then the model is semi-parametric.
Formally, in the finite-dimensional case, if the linear map is represented as a multiplication by a matrix A and the translation as the addition of a vector, an affine map acting on a vector can be represented as
Formally, a decision problem is P-complete ( complete for the complexity class P ) if it is in P and that every problem in P can be reduced to it by using an appropriate reduction.
If R is a ring, let R denote the ring of polynomials in the indeterminate X over R. Hilbert proved that if R is " not too large ", in the sense that if R is Noetherian, the same must be true for R. Formally,
Formally, a hypothesis is compared against its opposite or null hypothesis (" if I release this ball, it will not fall to the floor ").
Formally, the sequence of partial sums of some infinite summation converges if for every fixed power of X the coefficient stabilizes: there is a point beyond which all further partial sums have the same coefficient.
Formally, a function ƒ is real analytic on an open set D in the real line if for any x < sub > 0 </ sub > in D one can write
Formally, if is an open subset of the complex plane, a point of, and is a holomorphic function, then is called a removable singularity for if there exists a holomorphic function which coincides with on.
Formally, two variables are inversely proportional ( or varying inversely, or in inverse variation, or in inverse proportion or in reciprocal proportion ) if one of the variables is directly proportional with the multiplicative inverse ( reciprocal ) of the other, or equivalently if their product is a constant.
Informally, G has the above presentation if it is the " freest group " generated by S subject only to the relations R. Formally, the group G is said to have the above presentation if it is isomorphic to the quotient of a free group on S by the normal subgroup generated by the relations R.
Formally, if there exists some B ≥ 0 such that
Formally, if we write F < sub > Δ </ sub >( x ) to mean the f-polynomial of Δ, then the h-polynomial of Δ is
Formally, a cardinal κ is defined to be weakly compact if it is uncountable and for every function f: < sup > 2 </ sup > →

Formally and is
Formally organized vocational programs supported by federal funds allow high school students to gain experience in a field of work which is likely to lead to a full-time job on graduation.
Formally, their designation is the letter Ž and the number.
Formally, the set of all context-free languages is identical to the set of languages accepted by pushdown automata ( PDA ).
Formally, the derivative of the function f at a is the limit
More rigorously, the divergence of a vector field F at a point p is defined as the limit of the net flow of F across the smooth boundary of a three dimensional region V divided by the volume of V as V shrinks to p. Formally,
Formally, the base is known as Naval Support Facility Diego Garcia ( the US activity ) or Permanent Joint Operating Base ( PJOB ) Diego Garcia ( the UK's term ).
Formally, there is a clear distinction: " DFT " refers to a mathematical transformation or function, regardless of how it is computed, whereas " FFT " refers to a specific family of algorithms for computing DFTs.
Formally, a bifunctor is a functor whose domain is a product category.
Formally, the system is said to have memory.
Formally, an inner product space is a vector space V over the field together with an inner product, i. e., with a map
* Formally, when working over the reals, as here, this is accomplished by considering the limit as ε → 0 ; but the " infinitesimal " language generalizes directly to Lie groups over general rings.
Formally, a profinite group is a Hausdorff, compact, and totally disconnected topological group: that is, a topological group that is also a Stone space.
Formally, this sharing of dynamics is referred to as universality, and systems with precisely the same critical exponents are said to belong to the same universality class.
Formally, a frame is defined to be a lattice L in which finite meets distribute over arbitrary joins, i. e. every ( even infinite ) subset
Formally, Φ = kx − ωt is the phase.

Formally and any
However, shortly after this positive result, Kurt Gödel published On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems ( 1931 ), showing that in any sufficiently strong axiomatic system there are true statements which cannot be proved in the system.
Formally speaking, a collation method typically defines a total order on a set of possible identifiers, called sort keys, which consequently produces a total preorder on the set of items of information ( items with the same identifier are not placed in any defined order ).
Formally, we start with a category C with finite products ( i. e. C has a terminal object 1 and any two objects of C have a product ).
Formally, however, a face is any of the lower dimensional boundaries of the polytope, more specifically called an n-face.
Formally, dependence refers to any situation in which random variables do not satisfy a mathematical condition of probabilistic independence.
Formally, the word is applied to persons who are publicly accepted in a recognised capacity, such as professional employment, graduation from a course of study, etc., to give critical commentaries in one or any of a number of specific fields of public or private achievement or endeavour.
Formally, an absolute coequalizer of a pair in a category C is a coequalizer as defined above but with the added property that given any functor F ( Q ) together with F ( q ) is the coequalizer of F ( f ) and F ( g ) in the category D. Split coequalizers are examples of absolute coequalizers.
Formally titled ' An Act to protect all Persons in the United States in their Civil Rights, and furnish the Means of their vindication, the Act declared that people born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power are entitled to be citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude.
Formally, the complexity class MA is the set of decision problems that can be decided in polynomial time by an Arthur – Merlin protocol where Merlin's only move precedes any computation by Arthur.
Formally, a deterministic algorithm computes a mathematical function ; a function has a unique value for any given input, and the algorithm is a process that produces this particular value as output.
Formally, a partially ordered set ( P, ≤) is bounded complete if the following holds for any subset S of P:
Formally, a system is said to be observable if, for any possible sequence of state and control vectors, the current state can be determined in finite time using only the outputs ( this definition is slanted towards the state space representation ).
Formally, the definition only requires some invertibility, so we can substitute for Q any matrix M whose eigenvalues do not include − 1.
Formally, a modulus of continuity is any real-extended valued function
Formally, if f is a harmonic function, then f cannot exhibit a true local maximum within the domain of definition of f. In other words, either f is a constant function, or, for any point inside the domain of f, there exist other points arbitrarily close to at which f takes larger values.
Formally, P is a symmetric polynomial, if for any permutation σ of the subscripts 1, 2, ..., n one has P ( X < sub > σ ( 1 )</ sub >, X < sub > σ ( 2 )</ sub >, …, X < sub > σ ( n )</ sub >) = P ( X < sub > 1 </ sub >, X < sub > 2 </ sub >, …, X < sub > n </ sub >).
Formally, a redistribution of all agents ’ initial endowments of goods among all agents in the system is a core allocation if no group of agents can redistribute their own initial endowments among themselves so as to improve the satisfaction of someone in the group without impairing that of any other in the group.
Formally, if and only if, for any given, there exists an such that
Formally, a natural number n is called superabundant precisely when, for any m < n,
Formally however they define it as any variable that does not directly affect the fundamentals of the economy.
Formally, a market is complete with respect to a trading strategy,, if there exists a self-financing trading strategy, such that at any time, the returns of the two strategies, and are equal.
Formally, this meant that the whole peloton finished out of time limits, but the referees understandably used a rule saying that they could give clemency to any group of more than 20 % of the stage's starting riders, officially citing the weather conditions as their reason to do so.
Formally, let X be any scheme and S be a sheaf of graded-algebras ( the definition of which is similar to the definition of-modules on a locally ringed space ): that is, a sheaf with a direct sum decomposition

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