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cross-section and normal
In control theory, sliding mode control, or SMC, is a nonlinear control method that alters the dynamics of a nonlinear system by application of a discontinuous control signal that forces the system to " slide " along a cross-section of the system's normal behavior.
However, a relatively low cross-section of collision can be obtained in this manner, and the repetition rate of the lasers is limited to a few hertz rather than the megahertz repetition rates naturally arising in normal storage ring emission.
The only volume flowing through the cross-section is the amount normal to the area, i. e. parallel to the unit normal.
where is also the circulation, is the vorticity vector, is the normal vector to a surface A, formed by taking a cross-section of the vortex-tube with elemental area dA, is the velocity vector on the closed curve C, which bounds the surface A.
The only mass flowing through the cross-section is the amount normal to the area, i. e. parallel to the unit normal.

cross-section and lower
* Meker burner – The lower part of its tube has more openings with larger total cross-section, admitting more air and facilitating better mixing of air and gas.
Diagram comparing a cross-section of a cultured pearl, upper, with a natural pearl, lower
The 1480 nm band has a lower, but broader, absorption cross-section and is generally used for higher power amplifiers.
As a result, the resistance is lower in larger cross-section conductors.
Budd thought the " triangles " were too wide to fit within Opabinia ’ s slender body, and that cross-section views showed they were attached separately from and lower than the lobes, and extended below the body.
It also allows for a design that greatly reduce water resistance ( the part that generates waves ) by moving as much displacement volume as possible to the lower hull and narrowing the waterline cross-section sharply, creating the distinctive pair of bulbous hulls below the waterline and the narrow struts supporting the upper hull.
Eurofighter Typhoon has a largely conventional configuration, but exhibits a substantially lower radar cross-section than its predecessors.
Earth cross-section showing location of upper ( 3 ) and lower ( 5 ) mantle, D ″- layer ( 6 ), and outer ( 7 ) and inner ( 9 ) core
Camellia sinensis plant, with cross-section of the flower ( lower left ) and seeds ( lower right ).
Another peculiarity on some Crampton locomotives was the use of a boiler of oval cross-section, to lower the centre of gravity.
A closed flue pipe with a uniform cross-section sounds an octave lower than a similar open pipe of the same length.

cross-section and human
It says nothing directly about the contact cross-section between an ETIS and contemporary human society.
Vertical cross-section of the human cerebellum, showing folding pattern of the cortex, and interior structures
Schematic and enlarged cross-section through the body of a human embryo in the region of the mesogastrium, at end of third month

cross-section and is
Because it is so large a state, with marked contrasts in population density, the organization of the New York co-operative offers a cross-section of how the plan works.
Above, A is the variable cross-section area of the tube at the inlet and exit.
For example, in a copper wire of cross-section 0. 5 mm < sup > 2 </ sup >, carrying a current of 5 A, the drift velocity of the electrons is on the order of a millimetre per second.
where r = radius of gyration of cross-section which is equal to the square root of ( I / A ), K = ratio of the longest half sine wave to the actual column length, and KL
The scattering cross-section, σ < sub > scat </ sub >, is a hypothetical area which describes the likelihood of light ( or other radiation ) being scattered by a particle.
In general, the scattering cross-section is different from the geometrical cross-section of a particle, and it depends upon the wavelength of light and the permittivity, shape and size of the particle.
The total amount of scattering in a sparse medium is determined by the product of the scattering cross-section and the number of particles present.
In terms of area, the total cross-section ( σ ) is the sum of the cross-sections due to absorption, scattering and luminescence
The total cross-section is related to the absorbance of the light intensity through Beer-Lambert's law, which says absorbance is proportional to concentration:, where C is the concentration as a number density, A < sub > λ </ sub > is the absorbance at a given wavelength λ, and is the path length.
Dysprosium is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility in data storage applications, and as a component of Terfenol-D. Soluble dysprosium salts are mildly toxic, while the insoluble salts are considered non-toxic.
Because it is the contact cross-section that is of interest to the SETI community, many additional factors and modifications of the Drake equation have been proposed.
In the earliest stage of stream erosion, the erosive activity is dominantly vertical, the valleys have a typical V cross-section and the stream gradient is relatively steep.
The type of resonator guitar with a neck with a square cross-section — called " square neck " or " Hawaiian "— is usually played face up, on the lap of the seated player, and often with a metal or glass slide.
Zirconium is a good nuclear fuel-rod cladding metal, with the desirable properties of a very low neutron capture cross-section and good chemical stability at high temperatures.
alt = A skeleton is suspended on metal framework, which incorporates an outline of the soft tissue along a median cross-section of the animal.
Although this change in cross-section may be hardly noticeable, and thus involving moderate stresses within the elastic range of easily workable materials, the strain of the material of the tube is magnified by forming the tube into a C shape or even a helix, such that the entire tube tends to straighten out or uncoil, elastically, as it is pressurized.

cross-section and shown
By submerging the patient in a tub and rotating the transducer while the scanning goes on, they have been able to get cross-section views of the neck, as shown in Fig. 7, as well as many other hitherto impossible insights.
This version features a design evoking a squid attacking a whale ; the squid section, which has functional tentacles, can be detached as shown in the cross-section from Black Dossier.
As shown in this cross-section, many older roadways are smoothed by applying a thin layer of asphalt concrete to the existing portland cement concrete.

cross-section and 8
It is a rigid, erect plant 0. 5-1. 8 m tall, with stout stems with a square cross-section.
1 Air intake 2 Variable pitch fan 3 Tail boom with Coandă Slots 4 Vertical stabilizers 5 Direct jet thruster 6 Downwash 7 Circulation control tailboom cross-section 8 Anti-torque lift
It is a free-standing lattice tower with a triangular cross-section, standing 120 metres high and carries the logo of the Hanover Fair, which erected the tower in 1954, at a height of 89. 8 metres.
The Meeropol brothers have endorsed the conclusions of Walter Schneir in his posthumously published book FINAL VERDICT that the entire Greenglass story of the secret of the Atom Bomb was concocted -- that Julius Rosenberg had been given a " pink slip " by the KGB in early 1945 and thus was out of the espionage loop when the famous cross-section drawing of an implosion-type Atom Bomb ( exhibit 8 at the Rosenberg Trial ) was passed to the Soviets.
Its total size should be between 8 in 10 cm, while the relationship between the red and white point in the cross-section should be 1: 2.
Seismicity cross-section, Kuril Islands subduction zone, 2006 Kuril Islands earthquake | 15 November 2006, 8. 3 M < sub > w </ sub > event marked as star

0.321 seconds.