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CYCLADES and was
Second, they were connectionless devices, which had no role in assuring that traffic was delivered reliably, leaving that entirely to the hosts ( this particular idea had been previously pioneered in the CYCLADES network ).
Prior to OSI, networking was largely either government-sponsored ( ARPANET, CYCLADES ) or vendor-developed and proprietary standards such as SNA and DECnet.
The term datagram appeared first within the project CYCLADES, a packet switching network created in the early 1970s, and was coined by Louis Pouzin by combining the words data and telegram.
The term was coined by Louis Pouzin, a pioneer in packet-switching technology and founder of the CYCLADES network, at a time when network meant what is now called a local area network.
The CYCLADES packet switching network () was a French research network created in the early 1970s.
The CYCLADES network was the first to make the hosts responsible for the reliable delivery of data, rather than the network itself, using unreliable datagrams and associated end-to-end protocol mechanisms.
These concepts were later used in the Internet protocol ; CYCLADES was one of the predecessor systems with the greatest technical influence on the Internet.
CYCLADES was designed and directed by Louis Pouzin.
Data transmission was a state monopoly in France at the time, and IRIA needed a special dispensation to run the CYCLADES network.
As mentioned, the most important legacy of CYCLADES was in showing that moving the responsibility for reliability into the hosts was workable, and produced a well-functioning service network.
CYCLADES was an experimental French network.
RCP was a virtual-circuit network in contrast to CYCLADES which was based on datagrams.
RCP emphasised terminal to host and terminal to terminal connection ; CYCLADES was concerned with host-to-host communication.

CYCLADES and network
Cerf credits Hubert Zimmerman and Louis Pouzin, designer of the CYCLADES network, with important influences on this design.
Various aspects of OSI design evolved from experiences with the ARPANET, the fledgling Internet, NPLNET, EIN, CYCLADES network and the work in IFIP WG6. 1.
Louis Pouzin ( born 1931 in Chantenay-Saint-Imbert, Nièvre, France ) invented the datagram and designed an early packet communications network, CYCLADES.

CYCLADES and using
Packet switched networks such as ARPANET, Mark I at NPL in the UK, CYCLADES, Merit Network, Tymnet, and Telenet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of protocols.

CYCLADES used a layered architecture, as did the Internet.
Louis Pouzin and the CYCLADES alumni initiated a number of follow-on projects at IRIA to experiment with local area networks, satellite networks, the Unix operating system, and the message passing operating system Chorus.
Hubert Zimmerman used his experience in CYCLADES to influence the design of the OSI 7 layer model, which is still an extremely common pedagogical device.
CYCLADES alumni and researchers at IRIA / INRIA were also influential in spreading the Internet in France, eventually witnessing the success of the datagram-based Internet, and the demise of the X. 25 and ATM virtual circuit networks.

was and first
But her prettiness was what he had noticed first, and all the other things had come afterward: cruelty, meanness, self-will.
There was an artificial lake just out of sight in the first stand of trees, fed by a half dozen springs that popped out of the ground above the hillside orchard.
The first part of the road was steep, but it leveled off after the second bend and curled gradually into the valley.
No one was behind it, but in the rear wall of the office I noticed, for the first time, a door which had been left partially open.
The herd was watered and then thrown onto a broad grass flat which was to be the first night's bedground.
Once again, Tom Horn was the first and most likely suspect, and he was brought in for questioning immediately.
For Matilda, it was the first she had known in many a night.
Even the knowledge that she was losing another boy, as a mother always does when a marriage is made, did not prevent her from having the first carefree, dreamless sleep that she had known since they dropped down the canyon and into Bear Valley, way, way back there when they were crossing those other mountains.
Stevens was grunting over the last empty pocket when Russ abruptly rose and lunged toward Carmer's hat, which had tumbled half-a-dozen feet away when he first fell.
The Indian's arm whipped sidewise -- there was a flash of amber and froth, the crash of the bottle shattering against the side of the first car.
It was her first smile.
At first, I thought he was out of his head, talking wildly like this.
Hell, I gave him the first decent job he ever had, six, seven -- how many years ago was it, Rob ''??
Miss Langford ( her first name was Evelyn ) was an attractive girl.
School began in August, the hottest part of the year, and for the first few days Miss Langford was very lenient with the children, letting them play a lot and the new ones sort of get acquainted with one another.
It was just as well that the ignorant Dandy enjoyed himself to the hilt that first evening, for the room was to become his prison cell.
`` Bastards '', he would say, `` all I did was put a beat to that Vivaldi stuff, and the first chair clobbered me ''!!
In 1961 the first important legislative victory of the Kennedy Administration came when the principle of national responsibility for local economic distress won out over a `` state's-responsibility '' proposal -- provision was made for payment for unemployment relief by nation-wide taxation rather than by a levy only on those states afflicted with manpower surplus.
The first systematic thinking about this Pandora's box within Pandora's boxes was done four years ago by Fred Ikle, a frail, meek-mannered Swiss-born sociologist.
The smell at first was more surprising than unpleasant.
His collaboration with Washington, begun when he was the general's aide during the Revolution, was resumed when he entered the first Cabinet as Secretary of the Treasury.

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