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legal and writing
Roman Dutch common law relies on legal principles set out in Roman law sources such as Justinian's Institutes and Digest, and also on the writing of Dutch jurists of the 15th century such as Grotius and Voet.
Aside from these core elements, a civilization is often marked by any combination of a number of secondary elements, including a developed transportation system, writing, standardized measurement, currency, contractual and tort-based legal systems, characteristic art and architecture, mathematics, enhanced scientific understanding, metallurgy, political structures, and organized religion.
This date format originates from the custom of writing the date as ' the 8th day of November in the year of our Lord 2003 ' in western religious and legal documents, which at one time were the majority of documents created.
His writing and political work strained their marriage while his unfaithfulness embittered Rosina ; in 1833 they separated acrimoniously and in 1836 the separation became legal.
The Holy See has been recognised, both in state practise and in the writing of modern legal scholars, as a subject of public international law, with rights and duties analogous to those of States.
The word " jurisdiction " is also used, especially in informal writing, to refer to a state or political subdivision generally, or to its government, rather than to its legal authority.
The latter then took up the usage according to which one who remained for 44 days under excommunication came under the penalties executed by the State, and wrote his De incarcerandis fedelibus, in which he demanded that it should be legal for the excommunicated to appeal to the king and his council against the excommunication ; in this writing he laid open the entire case and in such a way that it was understood by the laity.
He earned his law doctorate in 1889 by writing a dissertation on legal history entitled ' Development of the Principle of Joint Liability and the Separate Fund in the Public Trading Company out of Household and Trade Communities in Italian Cities.
Persuasive precedent ( also persuasive authority ) is precedent or other legal writing that is not binding precedent but that is useful or relevant and that may guide the judge in making the decision in a current case is known as persuasive precedent ( or persuasive authority or advisory precedent ).
Upon presenting a property agreement between spouses to a court of divorce, that court will generally assure itself of the following factors: signatures, legal formalities, intent, later intent, free will, lack of oppression, reasonableness and fairness, consideration, performance, reliance, later repudiation in writing or by conduct, and whichever other concepts of contractual bargaining apply in the context.
Aspects of elementary education ( training in reading and writing, grammar, and literary criticism ) are followed by preliminary rhetorical exercises in composition ( the progymnasmata ) that include maxims and fables, narratives and comparisons, and finally full legal or political speeches.
In a ruling of importance for Orthodox women's capacity for legal self-protection under Jewish law, Haredi Rabbi Benzion Wosner, writing on behalf of the Shevet Levi Beit Din ( Rabbinical court ) of Monsey, New York, identified sexual harassment cases as coming under a class of exceptions to the traditional exclusion, under which " even children or women " have not only a right but an obligation to testify, and can be relied upon by a rabbinical court as valid witnesses:
William Blackstone, a notable English jurist writing in 1769, speculated that the name may have derived from the legal word " starr " meaning the contract or obligation to a Jew ( from the Hebrew שטר ( shetar ) meaning ' document ').
The 2012 US News and World Report Law School rankings lists the school at number eighty-two in the nation overall, adding that the school has the number one legal writing program in the nation, as well as top-twenty rankings for its part-time program and its clinical programs.
For legal purposes, the definition of a seal may be extended to include rubber stamps, or writing specified words (" seal " or " L. S.
The vast majority of legal scholars have concluded that in writing the Schenck opinion Justice Holmes never meant to replace the " bad tendency " test which had been established in the 1868 English case R. v. Hicklin and incorporated into American jurisprudence in the 1904 Supreme Court case U. S. ex rel.
For a time, Demosthenes made his living as a professional speech-writer ( logographer ) and a lawyer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits.
To make his living, Demosthenes became a professional litigant, both as a " logographer ", writing speeches for use in private legal suits, and advocate (" synegoros ") speaking on another's behalf.
However, many American style guides specific to certain specialties, such as legal writing and linguistics, prefer British style.
The term midrash also can refer to a compilation of Midrashic teachings, in the form of legal, exegetical, homiletical, or narrative writing, often configured as a commentary on the Bible or Mishnah.
" His books did much to free the discussion of sexual subjects in American writing from both legal and social restrictions.
All persons partaking in the deliberations of parliament or in the parliamentary commission meetings have legal immunity regarding any communication they made, either in speech or in writing ( Article 71 ).
Here are examples, with explanations, of the introductory signals used in legal writing under the Bluebook system:

legal and is
It became the sole `` subject '' of `` international law '' ( a term which, it is pertinent to remember, was coined by Bentham ), a body of legal principle which by and large was made up of what Western nations could do in the world arena.
Complementing the political principle of nationalism is the legal principle of sovereignty.
At the same time, because the personal code of the detective coincides with the legal dictates of his society, because he likes to catch criminals, he is in middle class eyes a virtuous man.
The basic premise of all mystery stories is that the distinction between good and bad coincides with the distinction between legal and illegal.
If he is good, he may not be legal ; ;
if he is legal, he may not be good.
Hammarskjold's supposed desire to seek outside legal advice in the guise of Ernest Gross is illusion, at best.
Mr. Stavropoulos is the U.N. legal chief and a very good man, but he is not fully versed on some technical points of American law ''.
The appeal is going to be to the pocketbook and may be very convincing to those who do not see its relation to political and legal, as well as economic, self-rule.
To think that we can merely relinquish our economic autonomy without giving up our political or legal autonomy is wishful thinking.
if such person is deceased or is under a legal disability, payment shall be made to his legal representative: Provided, That if the total award is not over $500 and there is no qualified executor or administrator, payment may be made to the person or persons found by the Comptroller General of the United States to be entitled thereto, without the necessity of compliance with the requirements of law with respect to the administration of estates ; ;
If the last day ( due date ) for performing any act for tax purposes, such as filing a return or making a tax payment, etc., falls on Saturday, Sunday, or a legal holiday, you may perform that act on the next succeeding day which is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday.
If your principal place of abode for the tax year is outside the United States ( including Alaska and Hawaii ), Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands and you have no legal residence or principal place of business in any Internal Revenue district in the United States, you should file your return with the Office of International Operations, Internal Revenue Service, Washington 25, D.C..
Sir Henry Sumner Maine, a hundred years before Communism was a force to be reckoned with, wrote his brilliant legal generalization, that `` the progress of society is from status to contract ''.
In working out the practical legal conclusions President Waters was not thinking only of this pilot project, for it is planned to duplicate this program or system in other builder developments nationally.
My object, rather, is to alert you to an aspect or two of the affair that could have the gravest implications for you, far beyond the legal sanctions society might inflict.

legal and used
Words primarily used in Austria are Jänner ( January ) rather than Januar, heuer ( this year ) rather than dieses Jahr, Stiege ( stairs ) instead of Treppe, Rauchfang ( chimney ) instead of Schornstein, many administrative, legal and political terms – and a whole series of foods and vegetables such as: Erdäpfel ( potatoes ) German Kartoffeln ( but Dutch Aardappel ), Schlagobers ( whipped cream ) German Schlagsahne, Faschiertes ( ground beef ) German Hackfleisch, Fisolen ( green beans ) German Gartenbohne ( but Czech fazole and Italian fagioli ), Karfiol ( cauliflower ) German Blumenkohl ( but Italian cavolfiore ), Kohlsprossen ( Brussels sprouts ) German Rosenkohl, Marillen ( apricots ) German Aprikosen but Slovak marhuľa, Paradeiser ( tomatoes ) German Tomaten, Palatschinken ( pancakes ) German Pfannkuchen ( but Czech palačinky ), Topfen ( a semi-sweet cottage cheese ) German Quark and Kren ( horseradish ) German Meerrettich ( but Czech křen ).
The term allegiance was traditionally often used by English legal commentators in a larger sense, divided by them into natural and local, the latter applying to the deference which even a foreigner must pay to the institutions of the country in which he happens to live.
Doubleday assumed administrative duties in the defenses of Washington, D. C., where he was in charge of courts martial, which gave him legal experience that he used after the war.
In 1999 they brought a legal challenge to this patent which had granted a private US citizen " ownership " of the knowledge of a plant that is well-known and sacred to many indigenous peoples of the Amazon, and used by them in religious and healing ceremonies.
When the Roman Empire turned Christian during the following century, this imagery came to be used in a more metaphysical sense, and removed legal impediments to the development and public use of the Anno Domini dating system, which came into general use during the reign of Charlemagne.
* Amputation is used as a legal punishment in a number of countries, among them Iran, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Islamic regions of Nigeria.
In economics, regulatory arbitrage ( sometimes, tax arbitrage ) may be used to refer to situations when a company can choose a nominal place of business with a regulatory, legal or tax regime with lower costs.
The term " black-letter law " is also used commonly in the American legal system to mean well-established case law.
The recording can further be used to identify advantage players whose activities, while legal, make them undesirable customers.
Blood alcohol content ( BAC ), also called blood alcohol concentration, blood ethanol concentration, or blood alcohol level is most commonly used as a metric of alcohol intoxication for legal or medical purposes.
These definitions are archaic, their relevance having dissipated with the development of the English legal system over the centuries, but they do explain the origin of the term as used today.
The legal writings used are called Institutional Texts and come mostly from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries.
A banknote ( more commonly known as a bill in the United States and Canada ) is a type of currency, and commonly used as legal tender in many jurisdictions.
In legal firms the title is used to indicated a lawyer who is not a partner of the law firm.
This may indicate a co-owner as in a legal partnership or may be used in a general way to refer to a broad class of employees or temporary / contract workers who are often assigned field or customer service work.
The film Blade Runner ( 1982 ), adapted from Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep ?, is set in 2019 in a dystopian future in which manufactured beings called replicants are slaves used on space colonies and are legal prey on Earth to various bounty hunters who " retire " ( kill ) them.
The following classes of offences are used, or have been used, as legal terms of art:
The legal instruments used by the Council for the Common Foreign and Security Policy are different from the legislative acts.
A list of firearms not covered by the NFA due to their antique status may be found here or due to their Curio and Relic status may be found here ; these lists includes a number of carbines with barrels less than the minimum legal length and firearms that are " primarily collector's items and are not likely to be used as weapons and, therefore, are excluded from the provisions of the National Firearms Act.
In the Hebrew of the contemporary State of Israel, the word pilegesh is often used as the equivalent of the English word, mistress — i. e. the female partner in extramarital relations, regardless of legal recognition.
Opinions as to when this software is moral ( and sometimes legal ) to use vary widely with individual people being strongly in favor and against the same software used in different scenarios.
A coin is a piece of hard material that is standardized in weight, is produced in large quantities in order to facilitate trade, and primarily can be used as a legal tender.
Its copying in subsequent generations indicates that it was used as a model of legal and judicial reasoning.
Compaq was able to market a legal IBM clone because IBM mostly used " off the shelf " parts for their PC.

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