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According and Marxist
It is an “ instrument of wholesale destruction, dependency and systematic exploitation producing distorted economies, socio-psychological disorientation, massive poverty and neocolonial dependency .” According to some Marxist historians, in all of the colonial countries ruled by Western European countries “ the natives were robbed of more than half their natural span of life by undernourishment ”.
According to Marxist theorists, history develops in accordance with the following observations:
According to the Marxist historian, Walter Rodney, imperialism meant capitalist expansion.
According to Marxist theory, the antonym of proletarian internationalism is bourgeois nationalism.
According to Marxist theory, such a contradiction can be found, for example, in the fact that:
According to Marxist historian Christopher Hill: The Civil War was a class war, in which the despotism of Charles I was defended by the reactionary forces of the established Church and conservative landlords, and on the other side stood the trading and industrial classes in town and countryside.
According to Kołakowski, neither Sartre's view that freedom must be safeguarded in revolutionary organization nor his view that there will be perfect freedom when Communism has abolished shortages is new in a Marxist context, and Sartre fails to explain how either could have been brought about.
According to an internal document by Grant, the International considered Militant to have " a poorly functioning organization ", and aligned itself instead with the International Marxist Group ( IMG ).
According to Adnan A. Musallam this can be traced to one of the founders of radical Islamism, Sayyid Qutb, who used the label to attack secular rulers such as Nasser, seen as creating " idols " based on un-Islamic Western and Marxist ideologies.
According to Ryerson, and many other Marxist thinkers, the ability to breakthrough to a more open society will come about from the “ dispelling of the fog of false consciousness, gaining for ourselves a true recognition of the real nature of the existing social structure .”
According to Marxist theory, this serves the interests of the capitalist class, or bourgeoisie, as it moves power from the nation's governments to private parties.
According to Vernengo, the Latin American Structuralist and the American Marxist schools had significant differences but agreed on some basic points:
According to Matko Meštrović, emeritus senior research fellow at the Institute of Economics of Zagreb, Croatia, LaRouche's economic policies, developed from originally Marxist beginnings, call for a program modeled on the economic-recovery program of the Franklin Roosevelt administration, including fixed exchange rates, capital controls, exchange controls, currency controls, and protectionist price and trade agreements among partner-nations.
According to a 2009 interview in China Youth Daily Online, LaRouche was once a Marxist, but now supports capitalism.
According to historians, the youth policy in the city started in 1892, when the first Marxist society was formed.
According to Marxist theory, the individual is heavily influenced by the structure of society, which in all modern societies means a class structure ; that is, people's opportunities, wants, and interests are seen to be shaped by the mode of production that characterizes the society they inhabit.
According to the League, Southern society differs greatly from what it sees as the Marxist and egalitarian society lacking " any grace or charm " that its " alien occupier " seeks to " impress upon it.
According to Oak, modern secular and Marxist historians have fabricated " idealized versions " of India's past and drained it of its " Vedic context and content ".
According to the Marxist author Ernest Belfort Bax, Freemasons had a considerable involvement in the Paris Commune after a couple of unsuccessful attempts at reconciling the Commune with the French Government.
According to Marxist analysis, class conflict within capitalism arises due to intensifying contradictions between highly-productive mechanized and socialized production performed by the proletariat, and private ownership and private appropriation of the surplus product in the form of surplus value ( profit ) by a small minority of private owners called the bourgeoisie.
According to the Marxist theoretician and revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, " the principal content of Marxism " was " Marx's economic doctrine ".
According to Partisan Review co-editor William Barrett's " The Truants: Adventures Among the Intellectuals ", the Marxist Rahv had a healthy contempt for " Liberals ", whom he viewed as appeasers of Joseph Stalin's post-World War II Soviet Union.
According to a popular Marxist interpretation, crises are the necessary result of the falling profitability of production capital, which, according to Marx, was an effect of rising overall productivity ( raising the organic composition of production capital, and lowering the value of commodities ).

According and economist
According to economist Eduard Aghajanov, Armenia could have repaid them with low-interest loans from other, presumably Western sources, or with some of its hard currency reserves which then totaled about $ 450 million.
According to economist John Quiggin, the standard features of " economic fundamentalist rhetoric " are " dogmatic " assertions and the claim that anyone who holds contrary views is not a real economist.
According to the what economist Nicholas Barr describes as the " classical definition of income :" the 1938 Haig-Simons definition, " income may be defined as the ... sum of ( 1 ) the market value of rights exercised in consumption and ( 2 ) the change in the value of the store of property rights ..." Since the consumption potential of non-monetary goods, such as leisure, cannot be measured, monetary income may be thought of as a proxy for full income.
According to Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises, who had met Weber during his time at the University of Vienna,
According to Rajiv Sethi, an economist at Columbia University, black-white segregation in housing is slowly declining for most metropolitan areas in the US Racial segregation or separation can lead to social, economic and political tensions.
According to the economist George Selgin in his paper " Gresham's Law ":
According to ecological economist Robert Costanza:
According to economist Murray Rothbard:
According to economist theorists, companies receive a convenience yield by holding inventories of certain commodities.
According to economist William Stanley Jevons ( 1875 ), representative money arose because metal coins often were " variously clipped or depreciated " during use, but using representations for the value stored in banks ensured its worth.
According to economist Steve Keen, the " deleveraging " moments when they ( or the governments they live under ) pay down debt instead of spending on consumption or investment in real-economy infrastructure, result in economic crises or even depressions ( such as The Great Depression ).
According to health economist Uwe Reinhardt, " strictly speaking, the term ' socialized medicine ' should be reserved for health systems in which the government operates the production of health care and provides its financing.
According to economist Frank Knight, it is different from risk, where there is a specific probability assigned to each outcome ( as when flipping a fair coin ).
According to cooperative economist Charles Gide, the aim of a cooperative wholesale society is to arrange “ bulk purchases, and, if possible, organise production .” The best historical example of this were the English CWS and the Scottish CWS, which were the forerunners to the modern Co-operative Group.
According to economist Robin Hanson, in 1990 the first known corporate prediction market was used at Xanadu.
According to economist Stephen P. Magee, the benefits of free trade outweigh the losses by as much as 100 to 1.
According to economist Michael Hudson, China has said, " we don't want to make any more foreign exchange reserve of any paper currency, because all the paper currencies are government debt currencies.
According to economist and historian Murray Rothbard, between 1839 and 1843, real consumption increased by 21 percent and real gross national product increased by 16 percent, despite the fact that real investment fell by 23 percent and the money supply shrank by 34 percent.
According to a review by Geoffrey M. Hodgson, the term " social Darwinism " was first used in an English-language academic journal in an 1895 book review by the Harvard economist Frank Taussig ( it had been used as early as 1877 in Europe ).
According to the work of Nobel prize winning economist and expert on famines Amartya Sen, most famines do not result just from lower food production, but also from an inappropriate or inefficient distribution of the food, often compounded by lack of information and indeed misinformation as to the extent of the problem.
According to a study by economist David Card, deregulation resulted in the shift of approximately 5, 000 to 7, 000 airline mechanic jobs from the major trunk airlines to smaller carriers between 1978 and 1984.
According to economist Claudia Goldin, the success of the cliometric revolution had as an unintended consequence the disappearance of economic historians from history departments.
" According to Keynesian economist, Paul Krugman, the work of Friedman and Schwartz became dominant among mainstream economists by the 1980s but should be reconsidered in light of Japan's Lost Decade of the 1990s.

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