Page "Causality" ¶ 38
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Formally and is
Formally organized vocational programs supported by federal funds allow high school students to gain experience in a field of work which is likely to lead to a full-time job on graduation.
Formally, a binary operation on a set S is called associative if it satisfies the associative law:
Formally, their designation is the letter Ž and the number.
Formally, a topological space X is called compact if each of its open covers has a finite subcover.
Formally, the set of all context-free languages is identical to the set of languages accepted by pushdown automata ( PDA ).
Formally, the derivative of the function f at a is the limit
More rigorously, the divergence of a vector field F at a point p is defined as the limit of the net flow of F across the smooth boundary of a three dimensional region V divided by the volume of V as V shrinks to p. Formally,
Formally, the base is known as Naval Support Facility Diego Garcia ( the US activity ) or Permanent Joint Operating Base ( PJOB ) Diego Garcia ( the UK's term ).
Formally, there is a clear distinction: " DFT " refers to a mathematical transformation or function, regardless of how it is computed, whereas " FFT " refers to a specific family of algorithms for computing DFTs.
Formally, oxidation state is the hypothetical charge that an atom would have if all bonds to atoms of different elements were 100 % ionic.
Formally, a bifunctor is a functor whose domain is a product category.
Formally, a set S is called finite if there exists a bijection
Formally, the system is said to have memory.
Formally, an inner product space is a vector space V over the field together with an inner product, i. e., with a map
Formally, if M is a set, the identity function f on M is defined to be that function with domain and codomain M which satisfies
* Formally, when working over the reals, as here, this is accomplished by considering the limit as ε → 0 ; but the " infinitesimal " language generalizes directly to Lie groups over general rings.
Formally, a profinite group is a Hausdorff, compact, and totally disconnected topological group: that is, a topological group that is also a Stone space.
Formally, this sharing of dynamics is referred to as universality, and systems with precisely the same critical exponents are said to belong to the same universality class.
Formally, a frame is defined to be a lattice L in which finite meets distribute over arbitrary joins, i. e. every ( even infinite ) subset
Formally, Φ = kx − ωt is the phase.

Formally and information
Formally speaking, a collation method typically defines a total order on a set of possible identifiers, called sort keys, which consequently produces a total preorder on the set of items of information ( items with the same identifier are not placed in any defined order ).
Formally, the mutual information of two discrete random variables X and Y can be defined as:
Formally, knowing the step response of a dynamical system gives information on the stability of such a system, and on its ability to reach one stationary state when starting from another.
Formally, it is the process of eliciting information from the government.

Formally and can
Formally, arbitrage transactions have negative skew – prices can get a small amount closer ( but often no closer than 0 ), while they can get very far apart.
Formally the algorithm can be described as:
Formally the " head of state " can also personally be the " head of government " ( ex officio or by ad hoc cumulation such as an absolute monarch nominating himself ) but otherwise has formal precedence over the Head of Government and other ministers, whether he is their actual political superior ( absolute monarch, executive president ) or rather theoretical or ceremonial in character.
Formally, in the finite-dimensional case, if the linear map is represented as a multiplication by a matrix A and the translation as the addition of a vector, an affine map acting on a vector can be represented as
Formally, the theorem can be stated as follows:
Formally, a decision problem is P-complete ( complete for the complexity class P ) if it is in P and that every problem in P can be reduced to it by using an appropriate reduction.
Formally, a unique factorization domain is defined to be an integral domain R in which every non-zero and non-unit x of R can be written as a product ( including an empty product ) of irreducible elements p < sub > i </ sub > of R and a unit u:
Formally, a function ƒ is real analytic on an open set D in the real line if for any x < sub > 0 </ sub > in D one can write
Formally, the problem of supervised pattern recognition can be stated as follows: Given an unknown function ( the ground truth ) that maps input instances to output labels, along with training data assumed to represent accurate examples of the mapping, produce a function that approximates as closely as possible the correct mapping.
Formally, a Menger sponge can be defined as follows:
Formally, the case where only a subset of parameters is defined is still a composite hypothesis ; nonetheless, the term point hypothesis is often applied in such cases, particularly where the hypothesis test can be structured in such a way that the distribution of the test statistic ( the distribution under the null hypothesis ) does not depend on the parameters whose values have not been specified under the point null hypothesis.
Formally, a Coxeter group can be defined as a group with the presentation
Formally, the problem can be stated as follows: given a desired property, expressed as a temporal logic formula p, and a structure M with initial state s, decide if.
Formally, the poem can be understood as the combination of two sonnets, though the spacing of the stanzas is irregular.
Formally, a state space can be defined as a tuple where:
Formally, Mbenga – Mbuti Pygmy music consists of at most only four parts, and can be described as an, " ostinato with variations ," or similar to a passacaglia, in that it is cyclical.
Formally, the complexity class MA is the set of decision problems that can be decided in polynomial time by an Arthur – Merlin protocol where Merlin's only move precedes any computation by Arthur.
Formally, a system is said to be observable if, for any possible sequence of state and control vectors, the current state can be determined in finite time using only the outputs ( this definition is slanted towards the state space representation ).
Formally, the definition only requires some invertibility, so we can substitute for Q any matrix M whose eigenvalues do not include − 1.
Formally, the Calvinist position can be expressed this way:
Formally, given a finite set X, a collection C of subsets of X, all of size n, has Property B if we can partition X into two disjoint subsets Y and Z such that every set in C meets both Y and Z.
Formally, the issue is that interfertile " able to interbreed " is not a transitive relation – if A can breed with B, and B can breed with C, it does not follow that A can breed with C – and thus does not define an equivalence relation.

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