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Northern and Crusades
The domination of Estonia after the Northern Crusades, from the 13th century to 1918 by Denmark, Germany, Sweden, and Russia delayed indigenous literacy in Estonia.
* 1370 – Northern Crusades: Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights meet in the Battle of Rudau.
The last three books ( 14-16 ), describe Danish conquests on the south shore of the Baltic Sea and wars against Slavic peoples ( the Northern Crusades ), are very valuable for the history of West Slavic tribes ( Polabian Slavs, Pomeranians ) and Slavic paganism.
* 1219 – Northern Crusades: Danish victory at the Battle of Lyndanisse ( modern-day Tallinn ) establishes the Danish Duchy of Estonia.
In the early medieval period, the region's peoples resisted Christianisation and became subject to attack in the Northern Crusades.
In the late 12th century, Henry the Lion, Duke of the Saxons, conquered the region, subjugated its local lords, and Christianized its people, in a precursor to the Northern Crusades.
During the Northern Crusades of the early 13th century, the Old Prussians used this thick forest as a line of defense.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were crusades undertaken by the Christian kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the pagan peoples of Northern Europe around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
Swedish and German Catholic campaigns against Russian Eastern Orthodox Christians are also sometimes considered part of the Northern Crusades.
The official starting point for the Northern Crusades was Pope Celestine III's call in 1193 ; but the Christian kingdoms of Scandinavia and the Holy Roman Empire had begun moving to subjugate their pagan neighbors even earlier.
The Teutonic Order's attempts to conquer Orthodox Russia ( particularly the Republics of Pskov and Novgorod ), an enterprise endorsed by Pope Gregory IX, can also be considered as a part of the Northern Crusades.
Gregory IX endorsed the Northern Crusades and attempts to conquer Orthodox Russia ( particularly the Pskov Republic and the Novgorod Republic ).
Category: People of the Northern Crusades
Examples include the 13th century Albigensian Crusade and the Northern Crusades.
As an important port for trade between Russia and Scandinavia, it became a target for the expansion of the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Denmark during the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century when Christianity was forcibly imposed on the local population.
In 1168 during the Northern Crusades, Denmark mounted a crusade led by Bishop Absalon and King Valdemar the Great against the Wends of Rugia in order to convert them to Christianity.
In the 13th century the area became a battleground in the Northern Crusades.
Category: People of the Northern Crusades
Since the Northern Crusades Estonia became a battleground for centuries where Denmark, Germany, Russia, Sweden and Poland fought their many wars over controlling the important geographical position of the country as a gateway between East and West.
* Northern Crusades
Through Genoese participation on the Crusades, colonies were established in the Middle East, in the Aegean, in Sicily and Northern Africa.

Northern and provided
In October 2001, the United States armed forces and British Armed Forces provided massive air support to United Front ( Northern Alliance ) ground forces during Operation Enduring Freedom.
Both the Southern Rhodesian and the Northern Rhodesian Governments provided aid to the displaced people, and built them new permanent villages.
In addition, the Soviets provided Germany with access to the Northern Sea Route for both cargo ships and raiders ( though only the commerce raider used the route before the German invasion ), which forced Britain to protect sea lanes in both the Atlantic and the Pacific.
In Northern Ireland coach, bus ( and rail ) services remain state-owned and are provided by Translink.
The Federation's government assigned roles to each of the three territories: Southern Rhodesia was assigned the responsibility of providing managerial and administrative skills ; Northern Rhodesia provided copper revenues ; and Nyasaland provided the Black labour.
Reggio co-founded La Clinica de la Gente, a facility that provided medical care to 12, 000 community members in Santa Fe, and La Gente, a community-organizing project in Northern New Mexico's barrios.
The Adige in Northern Italy was provided with an underground canal that allows to drain part of its flow into the Garda Lake ( in the Po drainage basin ), thus lessening the risk of estuarine floods.
In Northern Ireland flood risk management is provided by Rivers Agency.
The RUC was renamed and reformed, as is provided for by the final version of the Police ( Northern Ireland ) Act 2000.
When New Zealand was separated from the colony of New South Wales in 1841 and established as a Crown colony in its own right, the Royal Charter effecting this provided that " the principal Islands, heretofore known as, or commonly called, the ' Northern Island ', the ' Middle Island ', and ' Stewart's Island ', shall henceforward be designated and known respectively as ' New Ulster ', ' New Munster ', and ' New Leinster '".
The Northern Zone bus runs continue as they are at this time, with the exception of the Ladyville Shuttle Service which will now be provided by Skai ’ s Bus Line, Flores Bus Service and Ramos Bus Service.
While Zhang Qian did not succeed in this mission, his reports of the west provided even greater incentive to counter the Xiongnu hold on westward routes out of China, and the Chinese prepared to mount a large scale attack using the Northern Silk Road to move men and material.
As part of the New Works Programme, the Northern Line was provided with 1938 stock.
Other cross-platform interchanges are provided at Stockwell ( with the Northern line ), Highbury & Islington ( with First Capital Connect, originally the Northern City Line ), and at Finsbury Park ( with the Piccadilly line ).
Hampstead started to expand following the opening of the North London Railway in the 1860s ( now the London Overground with passenger services operated by Transport for London ), and expanded further after the Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway opened in 1907 ( now part of London Underground's Northern Line ) and provided fast travel to central London.
SSSIs were originally set up by the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949, but the current legal framework for SSSIs is provided by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, amended in 1985 and further substantially amended in 2000 ( by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 ), in Scotland by the Nature Conservation ( Scotland ) Act 2004 and in Northern Ireland by the Nature Conservation and Amenity Lands ( Northern Ireland ) Order 1985.
Whilst the British security forces in Northern Ireland have provided support in the countering of both republican and loyalist paramilitary groups since the early 1970s, republican sources have often accused these forces of collusion with loyalists.
Historically, the Northern Arrow and other rail lines provided passenger traffic to Petoskey and Bay View, Michigan from as far as Chicago and St. Louis, but these were discontinued in the late 20th century.
Having a grist mill, two grain elevators, a Northern Pacific Railroad station and numerous merchants, made Verndale a boom town and provided a distinct advantage in commerce over neighboring communities.
Advanced Life Support services ( which are billed to the patient or their insurance ) are provided by area hospitals through the Northern New Jersey Mobile Intensive Care Consortium ( a. k. a. " MICCOM "), primarily by The Valley Hospital.
In the late 19th century, the Cincinnati, Lebanon and Northern Railway provided narrow gauge commuter rail service to Blue Ash.

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